The dog’s body is constantly consuming energy. Replenishes energy with nutrients. In addition to them, for the normal growth and development of the body requires a number of chemicals (various mineral salts, vitamins, etc.).
The main nutrient is carbohydrates, which make up up to 70% of all the nutrients received by an adult dog. The daily diet of the dog should contain up to 700 g of carbohydrates. These substances are found in greatest quantities in various cereals, bread and some vegetables.
The most nutritious substances are fats. With excess intake of nutrients, their excess is deposited in the body in the form of fat, and with a lack of these substances, the body first of all consumes its supply, that is, fat. The dog should receive 35–70 g of fat per day. The largest amount of fat is found in oil, fat, fish oil. Excessive fat in food causes an upset in the intestines.
Proteins play a huge role in the life of the body. They are not only a nutrient, but also serve as the main material for building cells and tissues. In this sense, proteins cannot be replaced by either carbohydrates or fats. It is especially important to provide the required amount of protein to a young growing body (primarily protein of animal origin). In the diet of an adult dog, proteins should be at least 20% (3-4 g of protein per 1 kg of live weight), and in the diet of a puppy and a young dog, approximately 40% (due to a corresponding decrease in the amount of carbohydrates).
Mineral salts (salts of calcium and phosphorus) are necessary for the proper growth and development of the body, and above all the skeleton, for the formation of red blood cells - salts of iron, for the functioning of internal organs - salts of sodium, potassium, magnesium, iodine, etc. The value of salts is not determined by the quantity , and their role in the general metabolism and in various life processes. Mineral salts are found in every feed the dog receives, especially a lot of them in the bones. Pure mineral salt is also included in the diet of dogs (table salt, or sodium chloride). Many mineral salts are found in fishmeal.
Vitamins are necessary for the proper growth and development of the body. They are found in vegetables, herbs, milk, meat, as well as in fish oil.
A very important role in the life of the body is played by water. A decrease in its amount in the body can cause serious diseases and even death of animals. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure that the dog is always provided with water, especially in the summer. If the dog lives on the street, then in winter, if there is snow, you can not give it water.
The feed received by the dog is divided by origin into animals (meat, milk, fish oil), vegetable (cereals, vegetables) and mineral (table salt); and in chemical composition into protein (meat, milk), fat (fish oil), carbohydrate (cereals, vegetables) and mineral. Nutrient nutrition is usually expressed in calories.
In addition, the nutritional value of feed is also evaluated by the following indicators:
- According to the degree of assimilation by the body;
- By the extent to which they ensure the correct growth and development of the body.
Foods that fully satisfy this need (meat, milk) are called complete, feeds that do not contain all the chemicals necessary for the body (oatmeal, potatoes) are inferior.
For a correct, comprehensive assessment of a particular feed, you need to know its calorie content.
In order for a dog to grow and develop properly, it needs to be given a certain amount of food. In this case, it is desirable to take into account the age of the dog, its biological characteristics and physical activity.
The diet of the dog must be nutritious and varied.
Sudden transitions from one feed to another are unacceptable. It is forbidden to use legumes (peas, beans), as well as spleen and bones without meat for feeding the dog. It is recommended to give cereals in the following assortment: 50% crushed oatmeal and 50% other cereals (millet); puppies should be given semolina at an early age. Of vegetables, carrots, beets, cabbage and potatoes are useful. In spring, greens containing a large amount of vitamin C (salad) are added to the diet; green vegetables are used in puppies' food.
How to feed adult dogs
Let us dwell on the preparation of food and the procedure for feeding adult dogs.
A broth is made from part of the meat and bones, and a certain amount of meat is fed raw. Groats and potatoes are poured into the broth from which the meat is taken out. In the cooled soup, add fresh herbs, carrots, fish oil, raw meat, cut into small pieces.
Before feeding the dog, it is necessary to cool the food to room temperature. The amount of feed can vary from two to four liters (per feeding), depending on the size of the dog, its appetite and physical activity. Only fresh food should be eaten.
You need to feed the dog at the same time and in the prescribed place. This is of great importance for good digestion of food, as dogs develop a reflex at the time of feeding. Adult dogs are usually fed two to three times a day - at 8 o’clock. in the morning at 1 o’clock in the afternoon and at 6 o’clock. in the evening. Dog work should begin two hours after feeding and end 2 hours before feeding.
Inadequate nutrition affects especially a young growing body. Therefore, for puppies, increased nutritional standards are provided. The feeding order of puppies depends on their age. Feeding puppies starts at 15 days of age. Initially, they are given 50 g of milk per day, gradually increasing this amount so that by the 20th day they bring it to 200 g. The milk needs to be slightly warmed up. From the 20th day, in addition to milk, the puppies begin to be given porridge diluted with milk. From day 15-18, it is recommended to add raw minced meat to their diet (start with 25 g, and by the 30th day bring this rate to 100 g).
The puppy is taken away from the mother on the 30–40th day. Up to two months they are fed about six times a day.
To prevent rickets, fish oil and bones are added to puppies' food (from a month old). At the age of two months, puppies are transferred to a new feeding rate, in which the amount of meat and cereals is increased. At this time, they should be fed five times a day. Starting from four months, they again increase the rate of meat and cereals and stop giving milk. The number of feedings is reduced to four. For the last time, the puppy's diet is changed at six months, while three meals a day are introduced.
Proper feeding should meet the following requirements:
- fully satisfy the needs of the body;
- be strictly individual, taking into account all the characteristics of the body (age, live weight, load), as well as taking into account the time of year;
- be diverse;
- consist only of quality products.